Zahedan

City in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

City in Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran
Zahedan
زاهدان
City
Makki Mosque in Zahedan
Makki Mosque in Zahedan
Official seal of Zahedan
Seal
29°30′09″N 60°51′21″E / 29.50250°N 60.85583°E / 29.50250; 60.85583[1]
CountryIran
ProvinceSistan and Baluchestan
CountyZahedan
DistrictCentral
Government
 • MayorMohammad Amir Barahuyi[2]
Elevation
1,352 m (4,436 ft)
Population
 (2016)[3]
 • Urban
587,730
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
Area code+98-54
ClimateBWh
Websitezahedan.ir

Zahedan (Balochi and Persian: زاهدان, Zâhedân [zɒːheˈd̪ɒːn])[a] is a city in the Central District of Zahedan County, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran and serves as capital of the province, county and district.[6] It is near the Iran-Pakistan border.

At the 2006 census, its population was 552,706 in 109,488 households.[7] The following census in 2011 counted 560,725 people in 134,088 households.[8] The 2016 census showed a population of 587,730 people in 146,717 households.[3]

The city was the site of a deadly crackdown in October 2022, with dozens citizens killed by pro-governmental forces.[9] Over 90 people were killed.[10] Two senior police officials were fired in the aftermath of the crackdown.[10] On 28 October, there were protests in Zahedan and security forces fired on protestors, killing 1 and injuring 14.[10]

On 3 November 2022, the Shi'i cleric and Khamenei loyalist Sajjad Shahraki was assassinated in Zahedan.[11][12] The next day, there were widespread protests in the city and Revolutionary Guards and other armed forces fired on protestors.[11]

Name

The original name of the city was Duzzap (Persian: Duzdab, meaning "Water Stolen"), which it had received due to the abrupt floods into the valley. The name was later changed to Zahedan (Persian for "hermits") during Reza Shah's visit in 1929.[13]

History

Makki Mosque
Ali Ibn Abi Talib Mosque

Mention of Zahedan first appears in sources in August 1849. However, the city first truly started to grow during the early 20th-century.[14] During World War I it became the westernmost terminal of the Zahedan railway station, which reached as far as Quetta in the northern part of what was then British Baluchistan.[15]

Geography

Zahedan is connected by rail to nearby Pakistan and is near to Afghanistan. It is about 41 km (25 mi) south of the tripoint of the three countries and at an altitude of 1,352 m (4,436 ft) above sea level and 1,605 km (997 mi) from the Iranian capital of Tehran.

Zahedan Municipality

Climate

Zahedan has a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh, Trewartha: BW). Precipitation is very low, and mostly falls in winter.

Zahedan experiences very hot summers, there are 84.7 days per year with maximum temperature above 35 °C (95 °F), of which 7 days have a daily maximum above 40 °C (104 °F).. Winters are quite cold with minimum temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) for 43.7 days annually. Zahedan also experinces 81.3 days a year with haze.[16]

Climate data for Zahedan (1991-2020, extremes 1961-2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.0
(80.6)
29.8
(85.6)
34.5
(94.1)
37.4
(99.3)
41.0
(105.8)
43.4
(110.1)
43.0
(109.4)
43.0
(109.4)
41.0
(105.8)
36.2
(97.2)
30.6
(87.1)
28.6
(83.5)
43.4
(110.1)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 14.8
(58.6)
17.7
(63.9)
22.4
(72.3)
28.4
(83.1)
33.1
(91.6)
36.4
(97.5)
37.4
(99.3)
36.0
(96.8)
32.9
(91.2)
28.2
(82.8)
21.9
(71.4)
17.1
(62.8)
27.2
(80.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.5
(45.5)
10.5
(50.9)
15.3
(59.5)
21.1
(70.0)
25.9
(78.6)
29.2
(84.6)
30.3
(86.5)
28.2
(82.8)
24.0
(75.2)
18.9
(66.0)
13.0
(55.4)
8.6
(47.5)
19.4
(66.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 0.8
(33.4)
3.7
(38.7)
8.4
(47.1)
13.2
(55.8)
17.5
(63.5)
19.9
(67.8)
20.8
(69.4)
18.1
(64.6)
13.7
(56.7)
9.6
(49.3)
4.9
(40.8)
1.0
(33.8)
11.0
(51.7)
Record low °C (°F) −22.0
(−7.6)
−14.0
(6.8)
−7.0
(19.4)
−1.0
(30.2)
1.4
(34.5)
10.8
(51.4)
12.0
(53.6)
8.0
(46.4)
2.0
(35.6)
−4.0
(24.8)
−11.0
(12.2)
−16.0
(3.2)
−22.0
(−7.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 16.5
(0.65)
12.4
(0.49)
13.9
(0.55)
8.6
(0.34)
3.6
(0.14)
1.2
(0.05)
1.0
(0.04)
0.2
(0.01)
0.1
(0.00)
4.0
(0.16)
3.9
(0.15)
12.5
(0.49)
77.9
(3.07)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 2.7 2.1 2.5 1.8 1 0.2 0.1 0 0.1 0.5 0.8 1.3 13.1
Average snowy days 0.7 0.4 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 1.5
Average relative humidity (%) 48 43 37 28 21 16 16 16 17 25 35 42 29
Average dew point °C (°F) −4.6
(23.7)
−3.5
(25.7)
−2.0
(28.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
0.2
(32.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
0.8
(33.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
−3.9
(25.0)
−3.5
(25.7)
−4.1
(24.6)
−5.7
(21.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 231 221 240 267 307 329 344 342 316 298 262 229 3,386
Mean daily daylight hours 10.5 11.2 12 12.9 13.6 14 13.8 13.2 12.3 11.5 10.7 10.3 12.2
Average ultraviolet index 4 6 9 11 12 12 12 12 10 8 5 4 9
Source 1: NOAA NCEI[16](1961–1990 extremes)[17]
Source 2: Weather atlas[18]
Climate data for Zahedan (1955-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.0
(80.6)
29.8
(85.6)
34.0
(93.2)
38.0
(100.4)
41.0
(105.8)
43.0
(109.4)
43.0
(109.4)
43.0
(109.4)
41.0
(105.8)
38.0
(100.4)
31.0
(87.8)
28.0
(82.4)
43.0
(109.4)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
17.0
(62.6)
21.9
(71.4)
27.7
(81.9)
32.5
(90.5)
36.2
(97.2)
37.0
(98.6)
35.8
(96.4)
32.5
(90.5)
27.8
(82.0)
21.8
(71.2)
16.7
(62.1)
26.8
(80.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.2
(45.0)
10.2
(50.4)
15.0
(59.0)
20.1
(68.2)
24.5
(76.1)
27.5
(81.5)
28.6
(83.5)
26.6
(79.9)
22.7
(72.9)
18.2
(64.8)
12.8
(55.0)
8.8
(47.8)
18.5
(65.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
3.1
(37.6)
7.9
(46.2)
12.4
(54.3)
16.3
(61.3)
18.9
(66.0)
20.0
(68.0)
17.5
(63.5)
12.9
(55.2)
8.5
(47.3)
3.8
(38.8)
1.0
(33.8)
10.2
(50.4)
Record low °C (°F) −22
(−8)
−14
(7)
−7
(19)
−1
(30)
1.4
(34.5)
10.8
(51.4)
11.0
(51.8)
8.0
(46.4)
2.0
(35.6)
−4
(25)
−11
(12)
−16
(3)
−22
(−8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21.1
(0.83)
17.3
(0.68)
15.7
(0.62)
10.6
(0.42)
4.5
(0.18)
0.8
(0.03)
1.3
(0.05)
0.5
(0.02)
0.1
(0.00)
2.2
(0.09)
4.0
(0.16)
11.2
(0.44)
89.3
(3.52)
Average rainy days 5.0 4.3 5.0 4.0 2.6 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.2 1.0 1.5 2.7 27.4
Average snowy days 0.6 0.3 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 1.3
Average relative humidity (%) 54 47 40 32 26 21 21 21 22 29 38 48 33
Mean monthly sunshine hours 215.1 209.2 224.9 251.6 304.5 316.8 330.7 333.8 308.1 294.0 252.9 217.3 3,258.9
Source: NOAA (1961–1990)[17]

Demographics

Although the surrounding area has many ancient sites, Zahedan itself developed mainly in the 20th century. Before being chosen as the provincial administrative center in the 1930s, Zahedan was a small village. Its population reached 17,500 by 1956 and increased more than fivefold to 93,000 by 1976. After 1980, large numbers of refugees fleeing the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan helped triple the population of Zahedan to more than 281,000 by 1986, a number which has since doubled again.

Education

University of Sistan and Baluchestan's Amphitheater in Zahedan.

Zahedan is the home of the Islamic Azad University of Zahedan,[19] the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences[20] and the University of Sistan and Baluchestan. Besides, the largest Sunni seminary, Darululoom Zahedan, is located in Zahedan. There are some other religious Sunni schools in the city and the vicinity.

Street view, Zahedan

Sports

In April 2008 the 70 billion IRR (about 2.5 million USD) Zahedan Stadium was built with a seating capacity of 15,000 people. It was inaugurated on 18 April 2008 with a friendly football game between Honarmandan (Artists) and a local team.

Economy

Zahedan is the main economic center of the region and home to many small- and medium-scale industries. Its main products include cotton textiles, woven and hand-knotted rugs, ceramics, processed foods, livestock feed, processed hides, milled rice, brick, reed mats and baskets.

Transport

Zahedan railway station

Zahedan is served by Zahedan International Airport.

Highway 95 links Zahedan to Tehran and Mashhad in the north and the port of Bandar Chabahar on the Sea of Oman in the south, and Highway 84 to the Pakistani city of Quetta in the east and to Kerman in the west.

For decades the 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) broad gauge (Indian subcontinent system) railway exists from Zahedan station to/from Quetta's station in Pakistan, the Quetta–Taftan Railway Line. Beyond this, west, a standard gauge line was completed from Zahedan to Kerman linking the city with the rest of the Iranian rail network.[21] This flowed from a 18 May 2007 MOU for rail co-operation (of Pakistan and Iran) under which the line was to be completed by December 2008.[22] It was completed with an opening ceremony on 19 June 2009.[23] This means that Zahedan hosts the break of gauge between the Islamic Republic of Iran Railway's standard gauge tracks of the Trans-Iranian Railway and Pakistan Railway's broad gauge aforementioned.

Chabahar–Zahedan railway

Existing Iran railway network in 2015, Zahedan–Bam–Mirjaveh railway is already complete and operational

In May 2016, during Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's trip to Iran, agreement was signed to develop two terminals and five berths at Port of Chabahar and to build a new railway between Chabahar and Zahedan, as part of North–South Transport Corridor, by Indian Railways's public sector unit Ircon International.[24] This proposal is under study and consideration, a via Kerman connection to the port of Chabahar.[24]

In July 2016, India began shipping US$150 million of tracks to Chabahar[25] to build the US$1.6 billion line, for which India pledged additional US$400 million and Iran has also allocated US$125 million in December 2016, thus taking the total allocation to US$575 million (out of US$1.6 billion needed) by the end of 2016.[26]

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Could also be romanized as Zāhidān and Zaahedaan. Also known as Zâhedâne Yek. Formerly known as Dowzdâb (دوزداب), Dozdâb (دزداب) or Dozdâp (دزداپ), and renamed Zâhedân by Reza Shah Pahlavi during the late 1920s.[4][5]

References

  1. ^ OpenStreetMap contributors (22 April 2023). "Zahedan, Zahedan County" (Map). OpenStreetMap. Retrieved 22 April 2023.
  2. ^ "محمد امیر براهویی شهردار زاهدان شد". 30 September 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 11. Archived from the original (Excel) on 23 December 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  4. ^ Skrine, Clarmont (1962). World War in Iran. Constable & Company, Ltd. p. 68.
  5. ^ Zahedan can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3088799" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  6. ^ Habibi, Hassan (21 June 1369). "Approval of the organization and chain of citizenship of the elements and units of the national divisions of Sistan and Baluchestan province, centered in the city of Zahedan". Research Center of the System of Laws of the Islamic Council of the Farabi Library of Mobile Users (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Defense Political Commission of the Government Board. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  7. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 11. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  8. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)". Syracuse University (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 11. Archived from the original (Excel) on 25 November 2022. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  9. ^ Engelbrecht, Cora; Tabrizy, Nilo; Jhaveri, Ishaan (14 October 2022). "'It Was a Massacre': How Security Forces Cracked Down in Southeastern Iran". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 October 2022.
  10. ^ a b c "Iran protests: Fresh clashes in Zahedan". BBC News. 28 October 2022. Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  11. ^ a b Daragahi, Borzou (4 November 2022). "'Death to the dictator': Dozens killed as Iran's southeast erupts in political violence". The Independent. Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  12. ^ "Iranian cleric killed in flashpoint city of Zahedan - IRNA". Reuters. Islamic Republic News Agency. 3 November 2022. Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  13. ^ Dudoignon 2017, p. 119.
  14. ^ Dudoignon 2017, pp. 118–119.
  15. ^ Bosworth 2002, p. 387.
  16. ^ a b "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1991-2020: Zahedan" (CSV). ncei.noaa.gov. NOAA. Retrieved 31 January 2024.
  17. ^ a b "Zahedan Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  18. ^ "Yearly & Monthly Weather - Zahedan, Iran". weather atlas. Retrieved 31 January 2024.
  19. ^ "دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد زاهدان". iauzah.ac.ir. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2007.
  20. ^ "خانه". zaums.ac.ir. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  21. ^ Dr John Stubbs (1 January 2007). "Closing the gap from Bam to Zahedan". Railway Gazette International. Archived from the original on 9 May 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
  22. ^ "Intelligence". Railway Gazette International. 1 July 2007.[permanent dead link]
  23. ^ "Zahedan | Railways of Afghanistan". andrewgrantham.co.uk. 7 September 2010.
  24. ^ a b "Chabahar port: India to build 500 km rail line on southern coast of Iran as part of transit corridor to Afghanistan". Daily News and Analysis. 23 May 2016.
  25. ^ "India to export USD 150 mn rails for Chabahar port next month". 16 June 2016.
  26. ^ "$125m for Chabahar-Zahedan Railroad". Financial Tribune. 24 December 2016.

Sources

External links

  • Zahedan travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Municipality of Zahedan
  • Zahedan University of Medical Sciences Archived 17 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  • Official Website of the Sunni Community of Iran, Sunnionline Archived 23 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Authority control databases: Geographic Edit this at Wikidata
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